التميز بين أزمة و مشكلة ودور التخطيط الجيد في حل الأزمات

اعداد د. هشام عوكل

تُعرف الأزمة على أنّها أيّ تهديد قد يُلحق الأذى بالأشخاص أو الممتلكات، أو يؤدّي إلى تعطيل سير العمل، حيث إنّ كُل مؤسّسة أو شركة هي عُرضة للأزمات التي قد تؤدّي إلى الإضرار باسمها وسُمعتها، وظهر مُصطلح إدارة الأزمات الذي يهتم بدراسة الأخطار المُحتمل حدوثها في المُستقبل وتؤثر على العمل، ووضع خُطّة لمُعالجتها بشكل إيجابي

تجمع الكثير من المصادر إلى أن مفهوم إدارة الأزمات Crisis management يعود في ستينيات القرن الماضي ، عندما اشتعلت أزمة حادة بين الإتحاد السوفيتي سابقا والولايات المتحدة الأمريكية حول وجود صواريخ نووية في كوبا كادت أن تشعل فتيلا للحرب العالمية الثالثة ، وقد انتهت تلك الأزمة بالحوار والتهديد والترغيب والوعيد وتم عقد صفقات في الخفاء .

وحال انتهاء تلك الأزمة الخطيرة ، أعلن وزير الدفاع الأمريكي في حينه ( ماكتمارا ) بأن قد إنتهى عصر(الاستراتيجية) ، وبدا عصر جديد يمكن أن نطلق عليه”عصر إدارة الأزمات”.

ومنذ ذلك التاريخ بدأ اتجاه جديد يتعامل مع المواقف الصعبة من خلال مجموعة من القواعد(أو المبادئ)أو التوجهات أطلق عليها أحيانا ” فن إدارة الأزمات ” او ” سيكولوجية إدارة الأزمات ” أو ” سيناريوهات إدارة الأزمات ”

مفهوم إدارة ألازمات

ويجد العديد من الباحثين أن إدارة ألازمات هو علم وفن إدارة التوازنات والتكيف مع المتغيرات المختلفة وبحث آثارها في كافة المجالات، ويمكن القول أيضا بأنها عملية الإعداد والتقدير المنظم والمنتظم للمشكلات الداخلية والخارجية التي تهدد بدرجة خطيرة سمعة المنظمة وبقائها.

ويميز المفكرون بين عدد من المصطلحات المتعلقة بالأزمة مثل المشكلة والكارثة،فليست كل مشكلة أزمة ، وان كان لكل أزمة مشكلة .

أزمة أم مشكلة

المشكلة قد تكون صغيرة ولكن لا يمكن حلها فتصبح أزمة ،وقد تكون مشكلة كبيرة،ولكن من الممكن التغلب عليها من خلال جهد معقول ، أما إذا تعقدت الأمور أو وصلت إلى طريق مسدود عندئذ نكون بصدد أزمة.

الأزمة بهذا المعنى هي عبارة عن مشكلة معقدة يبدو ان حلها أمر شبه مستحيل بالطرق التقليدية ( هذا عندما نكون بصدد مشكلة ذات أبعاد نفسية او اجتماعية او اقتصادية ).

استخدمت كلمة أزمة أيضا في المجال الطبي عندما يتحدث الأطباء عن أزمة قلبية(مثلا) وهي اشهر الأزمات الصحية على الرغم من وجود أزمات أخرى ذات وجه صحي عند الإنسان ، ولكن الأزمة القلبية نالت شهرتها لأنها تأتي فجأة او على غير انتظار او ربما لأنها تكون مقترنة بمضاعفات مأساوية وتكون درجة الخطر فيها مرتفعة ومواجهتها بالأساليب العادية غير مجدية ، و بالتالي تصبح أزمة تحتاج إلى تضافر الجهود والسرعة والدقة والمهارة في معالجتها .

إدارة الأزمات :

تعتبر إدارة الأزمات فن صعب ، فعندما يحدث ما لا نتوقعه ، نتساءل كيف نواجه الموقف والأحداث التي لم نخطط لها.
ويمكن القول انه لا يمكن اختبار أي إدارة اختبارا جيدا إلا في مواقف الأزمات،ويعتبر الإنسان أهم مورد في المنظمات او المنشات لذا نرى انه لا يوجد بديل لوجود أشخاص أكفاء لديهم خبرات عالية تمكنهم التصرف بسرعة وجدارة،لإيجاد الحلول الجذرية لحل المشاكل الناجمة عن الأزمات.

يجب على المدير التوجه مباشرة إلى العاملين في المنشأة أو المؤسسة وتقديم خطة الأزمات لهم طالبا لدعم كل فرد منهم ، وعليه أن يدرب العاملين معه لاختبار واقعية الحلول الموضوعة،بحيث يتعود العاملون بمرور الوقت على التعامل مع الأزمات باعتبارها احد مواقف العمل العادية.

ان أزمة الإدارات العربية هو عدم تبني إدارة الأزمات وتفعيلها كأحد الحلول الجذرية والمهمة للمنظمة في العالم العربي الا في ما ندر،كذلك عدم تأصيل العملية المنهجية قبل وأثناء التعامل مع الأزمات.

وبناءا عليه ، فإنه يمكن القول أن هناك نوعان من المنظمات :

1- منظمات مستهدفة للأزمات Prone crisis

2- و أخرى مستعدة لمواجهة الأزمات Crisis Prepared.

إن المنظومة التكاملية يمكن أن تقدم السيناريو الأمثل لإدارة الأزمات خاصة في المجال النفسي وتلك المنظومة التي تعتمد على تكامل السلوك الإنساني واعتماده على بعضه البعض مثلما يعتمد الجسم في كافة أعضائه مصدقا للحديث النبوي الشريف”مثل المؤمنين في توادهم وتراحمهم كمثل الجسد الواحد اذا اشتكى منه عضو تداعي له سائر الجسد بالسهر والحمى” ونفس الأمر يمكن قوله في الظواهر النفسية والاجتماعية كل تكامل،يعتمد على بعض ولا يمكن ان ينفرد جانب من الجوانب بالاستقلالية المطلقة او الاكتفاء الذاتي

نظام إدارة الأزمات
أورد عدد من الباحثين خمس مراحل لنظام إدارة الأزمات، هي:
1- اكتشاف إشارات الإنذار: وتعني تشخيص المؤشرات والأعراض التي تنبئ بوقوع أزمة ما.
2- الاستعداد والوقاية: وتعني التحضيرات المسبقة للتعامل مع ألازمة المتوقعة، بقصد منع وقوعها أو إقلال آثارها.
3- احتواء الأضرار: وتعني تنفيذ ما مخطط له في مرحلة الاستعداد والوقاية والحيلولة دون تفاقم الأزمة وانتشارها.
4- استعادة النشاط: وهي العمليات التي يقوم بها الجهاز التنفيذي لغرض استعادة توازنه ومقدرته على ممارسة أعماله الاعتيادية، كما كان من قبل.
5- الإفادة أو التعلم: ويعني بلورة ووضع الضوابط لمنع تكرار مثل هذه الأزمة، وبناء خبرات من الدروس والتجربة لضمان مستوى عالٍ من الجاهزية في المستقبل. كما لابد من الإفادة من تجارب المنظمات والدول الأخرى التي مرت بأزمات والوسائل التي استخدمتها.

إضافة شرح

إن أي حل أو مواجهة لأية أزمة هو فن الإدارة العلمية للازمة معتمداً على القوانين والأنظمة النافذة، والابتعاد عن الطرق غير المشروعة وغير الشرعية في مواجهتها، وقد يتطلب فرض القانون كأساس لحل أزمة ما، لكن هذا الغرض يجب أن لا يتخذ كتبرير لاستخدام القوة الغاشمة، أو انتهاك حقوق الإنسان أو الأضرار الاقتصادية والسياسية غير المبررة.

فريق إدارة الأزمات:
يتفق الباحثون والمختصون أن أية أزمة تتطلب فريق عمل لإدارتها، ولابد أن يمثل أعلى سلطة، لان الأزمة تتطلب ردود فعل غير تقليدية مقيدة بضيق الوقت أحيانا، وضغوط الموقف ، وطريقة فريق العمل أكثر الطرق شيوعاً واستخداماً للتعامل مع الأزمات، ولابد أن يضم الفريق عدداً من الخبراء في مجال اختصاص الأزمة وفي المجالات المختلفة الأخرى التي لها علاقة بالأزمة.

المفهوم الياباني لمعالجة الأزمات
المفهوم الياباني في معالجة الأزمة يقوم على أساس أن الأشخاص القريبين للازمة هم الأقدر على حلها أو توفير الحل المناسب لها، وعليه نرى معظم الشركات اليابانية ونظام الدولة يتجه نحو اللامركزية في عملية اتخاذ القرارات، كما أنها تفضل استخدام الاجتماعات كوسيلة لحل الأزمات ، ويطلق على هذا النوع من الاجتماعات بحلقات الجودة، والتي تعتبر بدورها واحدة من المهام المستخدمة في تحديد الأزمات والمشاكل وكيفية تحليلها.

دور التخطيط الجيد في حل الأزمات
يعتبر التخطيط متطلبا أساسيا في عملية إدارة الأزمة، فبغياب القاعدة التنظيمية للتخطيط لا يمكن مواجهة الأزمات، وبالتالي تنهي الأزمة نفسها بالطريقة التي تريدها هي أو القائمون بها لا بالطريقة التي تنتهي بشكل قانوني وبدون خسائر جسيمة للطرفين.

لقد لخص جيري سيكيتش أهمية تخطيط إدارة الأزمات في كتابه(كافة المخاطر) حين كتب: لا تختبر أية إدارة اختباراً جيداً إلا في مواقف الأزمات فيجب على القيادة التوجه مباشرة الى العاملين في مؤسساتهم وتقديم خطة الأزمات لهم طالبة دعم كل فرد منهم وعليها ان تدرب العاملين معها لاختبار واقعية الحلول الموضوعة بحيث يتعود العاملون بمرور الوقت على التعامل مع الأزمات باعتبارها احد مواقف العمل الاعتيادية ولا يركزون على الأزمة ذاتها.

دور التنبؤ الوقائي في حل الأزمات

في عملية إدارة الأزمة لا بد من تبني التنبؤ الوقائي من خلال إدارة سباقة تعتمد الفكر التنبئي الانذاري لتفادي حدوث أزمة مبكراً وذلك عن طريق صياغة منظومة وقائية مقبولة تعتمد على المبادأة والابتكار وتدريب العاملين عليها، لا أن ننتظر وقوع الأزمة المتوقعة وتركها حتى تحدث لإيجاد الحلول ، أو الانغماس بدراسة حلها بعد فوات الأوان.

ماذا نفعل عندما نوجه أزمة

علينا ان نسأل أنفسنا مع كل أزمة عددا من الأسئلة مثل:

  • متى : متى حدثت الأزمة ؟ متى علمنا بها ؟ متى تطورت أبعادها ؟!
  • من: من سبب الأزمة ؟ من المستفيد منها ؟ من المتضرر منها ؟ من المؤيد لها ؟
    من المعارض لها ؟ من المساند ؟ من الذي يوقفها ؟ …الخ
  • كيف: كيف بدأت الأزمة ؟ كيف تطورت ؟ كيف علمنا بها ؟ كيف تتوقف ؟
    كيف نتعامل معها ؟
  • لماذا: لماذا ظهرت الأزمة ؟ لماذا استفحلت ؟ لماذا لم تتوقف ؟ لماذا نحاربها ولا نتركها لحالها ؟
  • أين: أين مركز الأزمة ؟ إلى أين ستمضي ؟ أين مكمن الخطر؟ إلى أين يتجه الخطر؟

هذه الأسئلة تحتاج الى إجابات ومن خلال هذه الإجابات نضع السيناريو المناسب للتعامل مع الأزمة .

والسيناريو يجب ان يضع في الاعتبار الأبعاد التالية:

1- البعد المعرفي :
أي بما يتضمنه من استخدام للذاكرة والإدراك ( الوعي ) والخيال ( الوعي الإبداعي المعتمد على الذاكرة )

2- البعد الوجداني :
وخاصة الجوانب الدافعية المحركة للازمة والدوافع المؤدية التي توقفها.

3- البعد الاجتماعي :
أي المتعلق بالمجتمع والإعلام والاقتصاد والسياسة وكل ما يمكن ان يؤثر او يتأثر بالأزمة

4- البعد التعبيري(الجمالي) :
وهو كل ما يتم من ممارسات ذات إيقاع معين ، ونتائج على قدر من الاذى للمتضررين والمتعة لصانعي الأزمة،ومن خلال تفعيل هذه الأبعاد في امكان الإجابة على التساؤلات المطروحة عن الأزمة،تتحول الأزمة إلى مجرد مجموعة من المشكلات الصغيرة يمكن التعامل معها

المصادر
1.1.https://mawdoo3.com
2.https://ar.wikipedia.org
3.. محمد بن علي شيبان العامري (قواعد في إدارة الأزمات)
4.بحث مفهوم الازمات الطارىة (دكتور هشام عوكل )

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