ما هو تأثير بصمة اليونان على اللاجئين لعام 2017

ما هي اتفاقية دبلن و ما الهدف من إنشائها ؟
كيف يمكنني الحصول على الجنسية الإيطالية ؟
ما هو تأثير بصمة اليونان على اللاجئين ؟
ما هي أهم مضامين اتفاقية دبلن ؟

نظام قانوني وضعه الاتحاد الأوروبي لتنسيق التعامل الموحد في قضايا اللجوء ببلدانه، وتحديد الدولة العضو المسؤولة عن دراسة طلبات اللاجئين، والإجراءات المنظمة للبت في هذه الطلبات وحقوق وواجبات كلا الطرفين.

متى تم إنشاء اتفاقية دبلن ؟

أنشئ “نظام دبلن” الخاص باللاجئين بموجب “اتفاقية دبلن” التي أقرت يوم 15 يونيو/حزيران 1990وقعت عليها في العاصمة الأيرلندية دبلن 12 دولة عضوا في الاتحاد الأوروبي، ودخلت حيز التنفيذ في 1 سبتمبر/أيلول 1997. وبما أن الاتفاقية مفتوحة أمام جميع الدول الأوروبية فقد دخلتها لاحقاً وعلى فترات مجموعة من الدول غير الأعضاء في الاتحاد.

وفي 18 فبراير/شباط 2003 أدخلت تعديلات على الاتفاقية سُميت بموجبها “اتفاقية دبلن 2″، وفي 3 ديسمبر/كانون الأول 2008 اقترحت المفوضية الأوروبية تعديلات إصلاحية أخرى في الاتفاقية تمت الموافقة عليها في يونيو/حزيران 2013 وأصبحت نافذة التطبيق في 19 يوليو/تموز الموالي تحت اسم “اتفاقية دبلن 3“.

وتعتبر الاتفاقية حجر الزاوية في “نظام دبلن” الإجرائي الذي يتألف من “اتفاقية دبلن” و”منظومة يوروداك” (Eurodac) التي تقضي بإنشاء قاعدة بيانات تحوي بصمات اللاجئين غير النظاميين إلى دول الاتحاد الأوروبي. ولا تــُزال بصمة اللاجئ من هذه المنظومة إلا بانقضاء عشر سنوات عليها أو بحيازة صاحبها جنسية إحدى الدول الأعضاء.

ولذلك فإنه تؤخذ بصمات أي طالب لجوء في أول دولة يدخلها -من الدول الموقعة على الاتفاقية- وتدرج في قاعدة البيانات المشتركة، وبالتالي يمكن تحديد ما إن كان صاحبها تقدم بطلب لجوء في دولة أوروبية أخرى غير التي يوجد فيها أم لا، وفي حالة قيامه بذلك تعتبر دولة الاختصاص غير مختصة بطلب لجوئه، ويُعاد إلى الدولة الأولى التي بصم فيها.

ما هو الهدف من اتفاقية دبلن ؟

نظراً إلى أن أنظمة الاتحاد الأوروبي تشترط في من يقدّمون طلبات اللجوء في إحدى دوله أن يكونوا موجودين على أراضيها؛ فإن “اتفاقية دبلن” تهدف لتحديد من هي الدولة المسؤولة عن تلقي هذه الطلبات ودراستها والبت فيها من الناحية القانونية أو الإنسانية، وذلك وفق معايير تضمنتها الاتفاقية.

كما تسعى “اتفاقية دبلن” إلى منع تعدد طلبات اللجوء من الشخص الواحد داخل أوروبا، بحظرها على صاحب الطلب أن يقدم طلبات لجوء في دول أوروبية أخرى أعضاء في اتفاقية دبلن وحصره في دولة واحدة فقط.

والدول الأعضاء في اتفاقية دبلن هي التي صادقت على الاتفاقية وتطبق فيها بنودها وتعرف بـ”منطقة دبلن” أو “منطقة نظام دبلن 3″، وهي دول الاتحاد الأوروبي:

فرنسا وألمانيا وبلجيكا وإيطاليا وقبرص واليونان ومالطا والبرتغال وإسبانيا، والمجر (هنغاريا) ورومانيا وبلغاريا ولاتفيا وليتوانيا وإستونيا وفنلندا وسلوفاكيا وسلوفينيا والتشيك والنمسا وكرواتيا، وهولندا والسويد والدانمارك وبولندا وبريطانيا ولوكسمبورغ وإيرلندا؛ إضافة إلى دول أوروبية أخرى ليست أعضاء في الاتحاد الأوروبي مثل سويسرا وآيسلندا والنرويج ولختنشتاين.

 

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